Daphne Munson & Jeffrey McMillen

Table of Contents:

Vital Statistics


The Name

Exploratory Missions


Is Life Present?

What Might Life Look Like?

Vital Statistics:

MPEG video of the Oxygen Production:

Galileo Galilei


The Name:

Exploratory Missions:

Pioneer 10 -- 1973 did a flyby of the Jovian System. These were the best photographs it took of Europa.

Voyager 1 -- 1979 did a flyby of most of the outer planets. Voyager 1 and 2 only took detailed photographs of small portions of Europa and they were in high sun so it was difficult to see relief.

Voyager 2 -- 1979 did a flyby of most of the outer planets

Hubble Space Telescope -- 1995, ongoing photographs being taken. Hubble will be able to take photographs regularly to try to follow the changes in the surface features and processes that go on.

Galileo Mission -- 1996

Science Objectives (from JPL page )

Europa was poorly imaged by Voyager so the plan includes a mix of high resolution and low resolution observations to provide context.

Europa Ice Clipper Proposed Mission ( ) -- The overall science goal for the Europa Ice Clipper is to sample the surface of Europa to understand the processes that shape it and to look for evidence of a subsurface ocean. In addition it will address questions as to the formation of Europa and the source of water for the Galilean satillites.


Volcanism and Geothermal Tides

Comparision to Volcanic Eruption Under Vatnajokull glacier in Iceland

Is Life Present?

Conditions needed to produce life:

What might life look like?